Question:

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions. People are living longer and, in some parts of the world, healthier lives. This represents one of the crowning achievements of the last century, but also a significant challenge. Longer lives must be planned for. Societal aging may affect economic growth and lead to many other issues, including the sustainability of families, the ability of states and communities to provide resources for older citizens, and international relations. The Global Burden of Disease, a study conducted by the World Health Organization, predicts a very large increase in age-related chronic disease in all regions of the world. Dealing with this will be a significant challenge for all countries’ health services. Population aging is driven by declines in fertility and improvements in health and longevity. In more developed countries, falling fertility beginning in the early 1900’s has resulted in current levels being below the replacement rate of two live births per woman. Perhaps the most surprising demographic development of the past 20 years has been the pace of fertility decline in many less developed countries. In 2006, for example, the total fertility rate was at or below the replacement rate in 44 less developed countries. One central issue for policymakers in regard to pension funds is the relationship between the official retirement age and actual retirement age. Over several decades in the latter part of the 20th century, many of the more developed pension reduced the official age at which people become fully entitled to public benefits. This was propelled by general economic conditions, changes in welfare philosophy, and private pension trends. Despite the recent trend toward increased workforce participation at older ages, a significant gap between official and actual ages of retirement persists. This trend is emerging in rapidly growing developing countries as well. Many countries already have taken steps towards much-needed reform of their old-age social insurance programs. One common reform has been to raise the age at which workers are eligible for full public pension benefits. Another strategy for bolstering economic security for older people has been to increase the contributions by workers. Other measures to enhance income for older people include new financial instruments for private savings, tax incentives for individual retirement savings, and supplemental occupational pension plans. As mentioned in the first paragraph, the following aspects will be inherited by the aging in the society, EXCEPT ________ . A technology achievements Correct answer B. the stable progress of families C. medical care D. social welfare

Reply:

TRANSLATION: People are living longer, and in some parts of the world, healthier. This represents one of the glorious achievements of the past century, but also a significant challenge. Longer life must be carefully planned. Social aging can affect economic growth and lead to many other problems, including family sustainability, the nation’s ability to provide resources to elderly citizens and communities, and international relations. The Global Burden of Disease, a study conducted by the World Health Organization, predicts a huge increase in age-related chronic diseases in all parts of the world. Dealing with this problem will be a big challenge for health services in all countries. Population aging is driven by declining fertility rates and improvements in health and life expectancy. In more developed countries, declining fertility rates that began in the early 1900s have led to current levels well below the replacement fertility rate of two children per woman. Perhaps the most surprising demographic development of the past 20 years has been the rate at which fertility has fallen in many less developed countries. For example, in 2006, the total fertility rate was at or below replacement level in 44 LDCs. A central issue for policymakers regarding pension funds is the relationship between official retirement age and actual retirement age. Over the course of several decades during the second half of the 20th century, many more developed countries reduced the official age at which people were entitled to full retirement benefits. This is driven by general economic conditions, changes in welfare philosophy, and trends in private pensions. Despite the recent upward trend in labor force participation rates at higher ages, a significant gap between the official and actual retirement ages persists. This trend is also gradually appearing in developing countries with rapidly aging populations. Many countries have implemented the necessary reform measures to the old age social insurance program. One major reform is to increase the qualifying age for public pension benefits. Another strategy to strengthen the economic security of older people is to increase workers’ contributions. Other measures to boost incomes for older adults include new financial tools for personal savings, tax incentives for individual retirement savings, and supplemental occupational pension plans . Explanation: As mentioned in the first paragraph, the following aspects will be affected by social aging, except _____. A. technological achievements B. sustainable development of families C. health care D. social welfare Information: + Societal aging may affect economic growth and lead to many other issues, including the sustainability of families, the ability of states and communities to provide resources for older citizens, and international relations. (Social aging can affect economic growth and lead to many other problems, including family sustainability, the nation’s ability to provide resources for elderly citizens and communities, and international relations.) → B, D true + Dealing with this will be a significant challenge for all countries’ health services. (Coping with this problem will be a big challenge for health services in all countries.) → C correct → Choose answer A

====== QUIZ ENGLISH 12 =====



hoc tap vn

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